PAPEL DOS GLICOCORTICÓIDES NO TRATAMENTO DE NEOPLASIAS MALIGNAS

Sofia Silva Pinto

Resumo


Introdução: Os hormônios esteróides, glicocorticoides (GC), desempenham ação antineoplásica, promovendo a apoptose em algumas células, além do seu papel já conhecido na inflamação e imunossupressão. A ativação da apoptose é um mecanismo importante das drogas citotóxicas, pois eliminam células tumorais. No entanto, as alterações na apoptose oferecem resistência para essas células tumorais. Desenvolvimento: Na inflamação é importante que os GCs possam induzir a apoptose nas células inflamatórias, enquanto protegem as células teciduais circunjacentes de danos causados por citocinas e enzimas. Entretanto, em pacientes com câncer, especialmente aqueles com altos níveis de GCs, a habilidade dos GCs de proteger as células cancerosas da apoptose se torna um fator prejudicial. Foram relatadas respostas positivas com o uso de GCs no tratamento de neoplasia sólida, seu uso suprimiu o crescimento de câncer de próstata, possivelmente devido à inibição da angiogênese associada ao tumor, diminuindo o desenvolvimento de VEGF e IL-8 diretamente através do receptor de glicocorticóides (GR), sendo importante receptor nuclear de esteróides nos cânceres hormonais dependentes. A ativação GR encontra-se variado de acordo com o tipo de tecido. Enquanto a ativação do GR em neoplasias malignas hematológicas foi associada com aumento da apoptose, a ativação do GR em células tumorais epiteliais inibe a apoptose. Considerações finais: Os GC estão envolvidos na indução de resistência a apoptose na maioria dos tumores sólidos de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento com drogas anti-cancerígenas e/ou radioterapia. Desta forma é de suma importância, a avaliação de pacientes com tumores sólidos em uso de GC.

 


Palavras-chave


Glicocorticóide, apoptose, câncer.

Texto Completo:

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Referências


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